ASEAN Regional Guidelines for Promoting Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) PracticesNgày đăng: 09/03/2017Lượt xem: 1099ASEAN Regional Guidelines for Promoting Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) PracticesRationale and Background Southeast Asia (SEA) is one of the world’s most vulnerable regions to climate change, due to its long coastlines, high concentration of population and economic activity in coastal areas, and heavy reliance on agriculture, fisheries, forestry and other natural resources1 .
Climate hazards such as temperature increase, erratic rainfall patterns, extreme climatic events (such as strong typhoons and severe droughts) cause adverse effects and impacts on ecosystems, livelihoods and on many other aspects of human societies. In particular, climate change threatens agricultural production and indirectly food security, ecological stability, and sustainable development. The most vulnerable countries of SEA have to respond through measures that will reduce the adverse effects and impacts of climate change (adaptation) and by significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation). Rice, maize and cassava are the key staple crops in SEA. Sustainable production of these major crops is adversely affected by climate hazards resulting in reduced yields and productivity. Strategies and measures to cope with and to adapt to climate change are imperative to enhance resilience of crop production systems2 to the vagaries of weather and the adverse impacts of a changing climate.
Climate-smart agriculture, forestry and fisheries (CSA) 3 , integrates the three dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social and environmental) by jointly addressing food security and climate change. CSA is composed of three main pillars: (1) sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes; (2) adapting and building resilience to climate change; and (3) reducing greenhouse gases emissions from agricultural production and processing. A number of CSA practices applied in crop production systems in SEA, ranging from indigenous practices and field-tested crop management measures to knowledge-based options, are already well documented and have proven positive results to enhance climate resilience. While the suitability of these practices is location- and situation-specific they may be modified or adjusted to be applicable in other areas with more or less similar conditions. To ensure the wide implementation of CSA practices (scaling-up) it is necessary to take into account technical issues as well to address operational and institutional limitations. Documented CSA practices as well as recently developed and tested climate adaptation measures form the knowledge base in ASEAN from which effective and cost-efficient strategies to promote climate resilience in rice and other crops throughout SEA can be formulated.
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